In the Jiading District, Shanghai, the METRASYS project aimed at developing and implementing a sustainable mobility strategy for mega cities.
Figure 1: Research Area - Jiading District (in green color)
Figure 2: Aerial image of Jiading Districtbbildung
Jiading District is one of 18 Districts in Shanghai and is located in the northwestern part of Shanghai. It stretches across 463,9 square kilometers and is home to a population of about one million inhabitants (in the year 2005). Half of the population is living in urbanized areas. In 2010, the population will have grown to estimated figures of 1.2 million inhabitants, with one million living in urbanized areas. The total population of Shanghai metropolitan area is about 18 million inhabitants.
Until the 1950s, Jiading was a small town in Shanghai’s rural periphery. However, Jiading evolved from a rural town to a satellite town until the 1980s. Afterwards, Jiading concentrated incessantly urban functions within the Shanghai metropolitan area and increased its population size. Being one of 18 districts of Shanghai, Jiading District today is an integral part within the metropolitan region. The metropolitan region itself is characterized by:
- A very dynamic economic development and strong population growth
- A high urbanization rate of about 90% in the near future, compared to 45% in 2005
- Extensive planning efforts, including large-scale industrial areas and infrastructure projects
- High traffic volumes and increasing mobility demands, in particular individual motor car traffic
- Increased energy consumption as well as rising environmental problems.
One result of the 2003 “Shanghai Suburban Area Working Meeting" was the agreement that Shanghai’s suburban area should be the winner of international relocation of industrial production to Shanghai metropolitan area. Thus, different internationally competitive production sites have been developed. Simultaneously, some medium-sized industry towns with a population size of 500,000 to 800,000 residents are to be built. According to the decisions taken in the “Shanghai Suburban Area Working Meeting” as well as to the decisions of local committee leaders within the initiative "Re-arranging Mountains and Rivers", Jiading District Committee and the local government of Jiading District proactively developed a strategic plan for the district. Furthermore, the decisions of Shanghai’s local government have been important for the development of Jiading District, as the government decided to relocate four core industries in Shanghai's suburban area:
- High-Class Steel Production Base (in the north)
- Micro-Electronic Industrial Base (in the east)
- Shanghai Chemical Industry Park (in the south)
- Shanghai International Automobile City (in the West).
Shanghai International Automobile City is to be developed in Jiading District. Accordingly, the idea of the four core industries has been implemented within the strategic plan for Jiading District as well as within the planning for the four development areas in Jiading District (see figure 3):
Central Development Area Jiading New City (168 square kilometers)
In this area, the center of the District as well as the regional core city in the Yangtze Delta city ring will be developed. It will be the political, administrative, economic and cultural center of the district. It provides daily life services and an auto-racing culture as major functions. In the future, it will be a modern, medium-sized city on a high technological standard.
Western Development Area - Shanghai International Automobile City (SIAC) (105 square kilometers)
This area is defined as the heart of the automobile industry and trading centers for the Asia-Pacific regional and whole China. It provides automobile manufacturing, component suppliers, automobile trading, exposition as well as research and development as its main functions. The unique modern Anting new town, planned by Albert Speer & Partners, will be another highlight in this area.
Northern Development Area – Advanced Manufacturing Base (110 square kilometers)
This area serves for the location of manufacturing and production sites, which are part of the division of labor within the Yangtze River Economic Belt and Shanghai metropolitan area.
Southern Development Area – Tertiary Industry Zone (80 square kilometers)
Closely located to Shanghai’s central districts, this area exemplifies the policy of 'Withdrawing from the secondary while forging ahead with the tertiary'. It provides daily life services, logistics, and specialized markets as its main functions. Furthermore, several ecological residential areas are planned.
Figure 3: Land use plan (2004-2020), according to the Strategic Development Plan" for Jiading District
In the future, express lines, inner city and regional express railways as well as high-speed railways between Jiading District, Shanghai’s core area and southern parts of Jiangsu Province are planned. The inner-city line R3 is to be connected with the planned Su Xi Chang line, thus creating a regional connection. Parts of the planned Jiangnan railway could be used as regional transport line. Furthermore, the existing transport network between Chengqiao, Jiading New City and Anting could be expanded. In the end, the transport network would connect four core cities within the region (see figure 4).
In conclusion, the plans aim at modernizing Jiading District, integrating it functionally within Shanghai metropolitan region and developing the automobile industry as one core industry within the region.
Figure 4: Plan of road network (2004-2020), Jiading District